The destroyer class Poets or Alfredo Oriani

(To Mario Veronesi)

the class Alfredo Oriani, also known as a class Poets, was a class of destroyers, ordered in the 1935, were the improvement of the previous class Mistral, these four fighters differed from their predecessors:

1) for the higher power achieved with higher precision, and higher degree of superheat of the steam

2) for the displacement, which was increased by about 10% when the ship was unloaded

3) for some internal equipment of auxiliary machinery.

Although two of them have had little more than three years of activity, we can state that the types Oriani confirmed the excellent performance of their predecessors. The only unit that survived the war, theOriani it was ceded into account for repairs to France, it appears that it has given good evidence even after the wear and tear due to the war and the offense of the years.

1) Alfredo Oriani (photo opening), his activity during the Second World War was very intense, in the 1940 he took part in the battle of Punta Stilo, and in the 1941 he played an important role during the battle of Cape Matapan. Damaged during this battle, he managed to reach the port of Augusta, under the escort of the Mistral and Libeccio. Later he took part in the first and second battle of Sirte and distinguished himself in the battle of Pantelleria. On the armistice date theOriani he moved from La Spezia to Malta with the other units of the naval team. Continuing the activity in collaboration with the English naval forces. After the 1945, he carried out a team training activity, and the 8 1948 of the XNUMX was transferred to France for repairs, renamed D'Estaing.

2) Vincenzo Gioberti (photo on the right), during the 1940 participated in the battle of Punta Stilo and Capo Teulada. Together with the other units of 9 ° Squadriglia he took part in the clashes of Gaudo and Matapan, escaping the disaster of the 1 ° Division. The subsequent activity of the Gioberti it consisted mainly of escort convoys, but also taking part in the clashes of Sirte (1941) and the battle in mid-August (1942). The 17 on August 1942 while escorting the steamer Pilo, it was machine-gunned by enemy aircraft with such fury to return to the port of Trapani with damages, deaths and injuries. The 9 1943 August while with the 8 ° Division headed from La Spezia to Genoa, was torpedoed by submarine enemy sinking quickly.

3) Giosuè Carducci (photo on the left), in the 1940 the unit took part in the battles of Punta Stilo and Capo Teulada. The 28 March 1941 during the battle of Cape Matapan was overwhelmed by the fire of the English team, while together with the other units of the 9 ° Squadron tried to rescue the On immobilized. The unit was finished by the British destroyer Stuart.

4) Vittorio Alfieri, in the 1940 the unit took part in the battles of Punta Stilo and Capo Teulada. The 28 March 1941 at Cape Matapan, was hit during the night action followed by the attempt to rescue the On, framed by the enemy shooting of the battleships and the English fighters, theAlfieri he had time to shoot four salvoes with the front guns and to launch two or three torpedoes against an enemy Ct. The commander CV Salvatore Toscano, after ordering the ship abandonment, sank on the bridge. MOVM was conferred to its memory. The same decoration was also given to the head of the GN Cap service, Giorgio Modugno.

Alfredo Oriani

Alfredo Oriani (1852-1909) poet and writer, had a difficult childhood, devoid of those affections that make a child's life happy and happy, and the boy grew grumpy and lonely, later revealing these characteristics even in the works that he began to publish in Rome. From Rome he moved to Bologna, to practice at a lawyer's office, in the meantime his family had moved from Faenza to Casola, in the Senio valley, where he owned a villa called "Del Cardello". In this house Oriani, he spent his life entirely. He moved from the novel to the political and historical treatises and to theater works; then he returned to the novel. One of his latest works was "Bicicletta", a collection of short stories. But his fame as a writer is linked above all to works of historical and political publicity, such as: "Up to Dogali", in which he analyzed the causes of the religious and economic crisis of the new Italy; "The political struggle in Italy", which narrates the Italian historical events from the Middle Ages to the Risorgimento; "The ideal rebellion", a work in which Oriani exposes his political belief by affirming the need for a strong state, which regulates social life with ample powers. This work, like many others, was curated by Benito Mussolini who exploited it in favor of fascism.

Vincenzo Gioberti

Vincenzo Gioberti (1801-1852), philosopher and politician, educated by the fathers of the Oratory to the perspective of the priesthood and ordained in the 1825. At first he led a retired life, but gradually gained more and more interest in the affairs of his country and in new political ideas as in literature. Partly influenced by Mazzini, Italian freedom became for him the main purpose in life, his emancipation, not only from foreign lords, but also from concepts considered alien to his genius and contemptuous of his European authority. This authority was associated in his mind with papal supremacy, albeit in a more fictional than political way. His popularity and influence in the private sphere, however, were sufficient reasons for the crown party to force him into exile; he was not one of them and could not depend on you. Knowing this, he withdrew from his position in the 1833, but was suddenly arrested on charges of conspiracy and, after four months in prison, was banished without trial. Gioberti went first to Paris and, a year later, to Brussels where he stayed there until 1845 to teach philosophy and assist a friend in the direction of a private school. Nevertheless he found time to write several works of philosophical importance with particular reference to his country and his position. Having been declared an amnesty by Carlo Alberto in the 1846, Gioberti (who was back in Paris) became free to return to Italy, or better, in the Kingdom of Sardinia. On his return to Turin the 29 April 1848 was received with the greatest enthusiasm. He refused the dignity of senator Carlo Alberto had offered him, preferring to represent his hometown in the Chamber of Deputies of which he was soon elected president. For a short time, he had a place in the Council of Ministers, even if without a portfolio, but an altercation was not long in coming and his transfer from Turin was completed by a mission on his mission to Paris, from which he did not return. He refused the pension that had been offered to him and every ecclesiastical promotion, lived in poverty and spent the rest of his days in Brussels. The 26 October 1852 suddenly died of a stroke.

Giosuè Carducci

Giosuè Alessandro Michele Carducci (1835-1907) was born in Versilia in Valdicastello, but in 1838 the family moved to Bolgheri, where his father practiced as a doctor. In 1849 the family settled in Florence where Giosuè completed his studies at the Piarists acquiring a good preparation in the literary and rhetorical field and, in 1853, after winning the competition for a free place at the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa, he enrolled in Faculty of Literature, where in the 1856 he graduated in Philosophy and Philology, and in the same year he published his first poems on the monthly "L'Arpa del popolo". In 1862 he entered Freemasonry as a member of the "Loggia Severa" of Bologna, in the 1865 he will become a member of the "Loggia Felsinea". In the following years the poet conquered a central place in the ideological and cultural structure of the Umbertine Italy, coming to embrace the political ideas of Francesco Crispi. By decree of the 26 September 1860 was appointed by the then Minister of Education Terenzio Mamiani Della Rovere to hold the chair of Italian Eloquence, later called Italian Literature at the University of Bologna, where he will remain in office until 1904. In the 1890 he was nominated senator and in the years of his mandate he supported the policy of Crispi, which implemented a conservative government, even after the defeat of Adua. In 1904 he was forced to leave teaching for health reasons. In the 1906 the Academy of Sweden awarded him the Nobel Prize for literature, he was the first Nobel awarded to an Italian with the motivation: "Not only in recognition of his profound teachings and critical research, but all about a tribute to the creative energy, the purity of style and the lyrical strength that characterizes his masterpiece of poetics".

The death (in the form of cirrhosis of the liver) caught him in Bologna the 16 February of the 1907. He is buried at the Certosa di Bologna

Vittorio Alfieri

Vittorio Amedeo Alfieri (1749-1803), was born in Asti in the 1749 by one of the most noble and rich Piedmontese families. A father lost to a year, he was entrusted with the protection of an uncle. In 1758 he was placed in college (Turin Military Academy) and remained there until 1766. Here noble youth was educated in the sciences and chivalrous exercises, and in 9 a degree was taken in law. When his uncle's guardian died, the Alfieri at 15 inherited his father's heritage, becoming very rich. As soon as he could get out of the academy, he gave himself to travel and debauchery (1766-72). In those years he literally traveled all over Europe, reading Montaigne, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Helvetius, etc., that is to say the best expressive of France at that time. His cosmopolitanism, however, did not leave deep traces in his conscience, if one excludes a particular appreciation for English society, of which he admired the balanced constitutional government. The journeys, however, served him to develop a critical attitude towards the enlightened despotism of Austria, Prussia and Russia. In Florence he binds with the wife of a former pretender to the throne of England, for which he decides not to move from the city. Since the Piedmontese laws limited freedom, the noble landowners, outside the state of Savoy, decided to donate all their assets to their sister, reserving in exchange for an annual annuity. He did so also because he no longer needed to ask his king every time the consent to leave the state and the approval for each new work to be published. In Florence (1792-1803) it closes more and more in a fierce hatred against the French, especially during the two Napoleonic occupations of 1799 and 1800. From 1789 to 1797 he composes 17 satire, from 1800 to 1802 the Comedies and finally the "Misogallo", a violent libel against France. He died in Florence in solitude in the 1803.