16 December 1902: International blockade of Venezuela for unpaid debts

(To Marina Militare)

Tuesday - After the ultimatums of the British, Germanic and Italian governments, the blockade of the Venezuelan coasts begins with a multinational naval force made up of four Germanic units, eight British units and the torpedo boat destroyer Giovanni Bausan (commander, vessel captain Francesco Orsini) - subsequently reached by the armored cruiser Carlo Alberto - due to the refusal of the Venezuelan president Cipriano Castro to pay the debts contracted by his government with commercial companies of the three European countries and of the war damages suffered by the compatriots during the 1898-1900 revolutions.

The block that will lead to the destruction of the units of the small Navy of Venezuela, will be removed only a few months later thanks to the mediation of the president of the United States Theodore Roosevelt that will bring the 13 February 1903 to the signature of an agreement for the payment from the government of Venezuela of 30% of its customs duties. The Bausan who will stay in the Venezuelan waters until July of the 1903 to verify the correct application of the agreement, will then direct for the repatriation.

[Three protocols were part of the agreement, one for each of the nations participating in the action, which established the sums to pay. For Italy, an "honorable" payment of 5.500 £ was established within 60 days from the signing of the agreement and a sum of 2.810.265 lire for war damages]